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Distributed Databases: Principles and Systems by Stefano Ceri and Giuseppe Pelagatti
Distributed databases are collections of data that are stored across multiple sites connected by a computer network. They enable users to access, manipulate, and share data from different locations, devices, and applications. Distributed databases have become increasingly important in today's world, where data is generated, processed, and consumed at an unprecedented scale and speed.
Distributed Databases Principles And Systems By Stefano Ceri Pdf Free 105
In this article, we will review a classic book on distributed databases: Distributed Databases: Principles and Systems by Stefano Ceri and Giuseppe Pelagatti. This book was first published in 1984 by McGraw-Hill, but it remains relevant and influential to this day. We will summarize the main topics and objectives of the book, highlight its strengths and weaknesses, and provide some useful information for readers who want to learn more about distributed databases.
The authors of the book are Stefano Ceri and Giuseppe Pelagatti, two prominent researchers and professors in the field of database systems. Stefano Ceri is a professor of database systems at Politecnico di Milano, Italy. He has authored or co-authored over 300 publications on various aspects of database systems, such as query languages, data integration, data mining, web services, bioinformatics, etc. He has also received several awards for his research contributions, such as the ACM SIGMOD Edgar F. Codd Innovations Award (1996) and the IEEE Computer Society Technical Achievement Award (2003). Giuseppe Pelagatti is a professor emeritus of computer science at Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Italy. He has also published extensively on database systems, especially on distributed databases, concurrency control, transaction processing, etc.
The main topics and objectives of the book are to provide a comprehensive overview of the principles and techniques of distributed database systems. The book covers both theoretical foundations and practical applications of distributed databases. The book is organized into six chapters:
Chapter 1: Review of Databases and Computer Networks
Chapter 2: Principles of Distributed Databases
Chapter 3: Concurrency Control in Distributed Databases
Chapter 4: Reliability in Distributed Databases
Chapter 5: Other Topics in Distributed Databases
Chapter 6: Bibliography and Index
The book is intended for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, researchers, and practitioners who want to learn about the state-of-the-art of distributed database systems. The book assumes some basic knowledge of database systems and computer networks, but it also provides some background and review material for readers who are not familiar with these topics.
Review of Databases and Computer Networks
The first chapter of the book provides a review of the basic concepts and terminology of databases and computer networks. The chapter introduces the following topics:
The data model, which defines the structure and semantics of data.
The schema, which specifies the logical organization of data.
The instance, which represents the actual data stored in the database.
The data manipulation language (DML), which allows users to query and update data.
The data definition language (DDL), which allows users to create and modify the schema.
The relational model, which is the most widely used data model for databases.
The relational algebra, which is a formal language for manipulating relations.
The relational calculus, which is a declarative language for querying relations.
The structured query language (SQL), which is a standard language for relational databases.
The network model, which defines the physical structure and communication protocols of computer networks.
The network topology, which describes the arrangement of nodes and links in a network.
The network architecture, which defines the layers and functions of a network system.
The network protocols, which specify the rules and formats for data exchange in a network.
The chapter also discusses the advantages and disadvantages of centralized and distributed databases. Centralized databases are databases that are stored and managed by a single site. Distributed databases are databases that are stored and managed by multiple sites. Some of the advantages of distributed databases are:
Improved availability: Data can be accessed even if some sites are down or disconnected.
Improved performance: Data can be processed closer to where they are needed, reducing network traffic and latency.
Improved scalability: Data can be distributed across more sites as the system grows, avoiding bottlenecks and overloads.
Improved autonomy: Sites can have more control over their own data, respecting local policies and preferences.
Some of the disadvantages of distributed databases are:
Increased complexity: Data distribution and replication introduce new challenges and trade-offs for database design and management.
Increased cost: Data distribution and replication require more hardware, software, and network resources.
Increased risk: Data distribution and replication increase the possibility of data inconsistency, corruption, or loss due to failures or attacks.
Principles of Distributed Databases
The second chapter of the book presents the fundamental principles and models of distributed databases. The chapter covers the following topics:
- How are data distributed and replicated across multiple sites? - The chapter introduces the concepts of data fragmentation, allocation, and replication. Data fragmentation is the process of dividing a relation into smaller subsets called fragments. Data allocation is the process of assigning fragments to sites. Data replication is the process of creating copies of fragments at different sites. The chapter discusses different types of fragmentation (horizontal, vertical, hybrid), allocation (centralized, partitioned, replicated), and replication (full, partial, selective). The chapter also explains how to measure the degree of distribution and replication using metrics such as fragmentation ratio, allocation ratio, replication ratio, etc. - How are queries processed and optimized in distributed databases? - The chapter introduces the concepts of query processing and optimization. Query processing is the process of executing a query in a distributed database. Query optimization is the process of finding the best way to execute a query in a distributed database. The chapter discusses different steps involved in query processing and optimization, such as query decomposition, data localization, global optimization, local optimization, query execution, etc. The chapter also explains how to evaluate the cost and performance of query processing and optimization using metrics such as response time, transmission cost, disk access cost, CPU cost, etc. Concurrency Control in Distributed Databases
Concurrency Control in Distributed Databases
The third chapter of the book deals with the problems and solutions of concurrency control in distributed databases. Concurrency control is the process of ensuring that concurrent transactions do not interfere with each other and preserve data consistency. Transactions are sequences of operations that access and modify data in a database. Transactions have four properties: atomicity, consistency, isolation, and durability (ACID). Atomicity means that a transaction either executes completely or not at all. Consistency means that a transaction preserves the integrity constraints of the database. Isolation means that a transaction does not see the effects of other concurrent transactions. Durability means that the effects of a committed transaction are permanent.
In a distributed database, concurrency control is more challenging than in a centralized database because transactions may span multiple sites and communication delays may occur. The chapter covers the following topics:
How are transactions executed and coordinated in distributed databases? - The chapter introduces the concepts of distributed transactions and distributed commit protocols. A distributed transaction is a transaction that accesses data at more than one site. A distributed commit protocol is a protocol that ensures that a distributed transaction either commits at all sites or aborts at all sites. The chapter discusses different types of distributed commit protocols, such as two-phase commit (2PC), three-phase commit (3PC), majority consensus, etc. - How are deadlocks detected and resolved in distributed databases? - The chapter introduces the concept of deadlock. A deadlock is a situation where two or more transactions are waiting for each other to release some resources and none of them can proceed. The chapter discusses different methods for detecting and resolving deadlocks in distributed databases, such as centralized deadlock detection, distributed deadlock detection, timeout-based deadlock resolution, etc. - How are locks used for concurrency control in distributed databases? - The chapter introduces the concept of locking. Locking is a technique for preventing concurrent transactions from accessing conflicting data items. A lock is a mechanism that grants or denies access to a data item based on some rules. The chapter discusses different types of locks, such as shared locks, exclusive locks, read locks, write locks, etc. The chapter also discusses different locking protocols, such as two-phase locking (2PL), rigorous two-phase locking (R2PL), conservative two-phase locking (C2PL), etc. - How are timestamps used for concurrency control in distributed databases? - The chapter introduces the concept of timestamping. Timestamping is a technique for ordering concurrent transactions based on some logical or physical clocks. A timestamp is a value that represents the time or order of a transaction or an operation. The chapter discusses different types of timestamps, such as logical timestamps, physical timestamps, hybrid timestamps, etc. The chapter also discusses different timestamp-based protocols, such as basic timestamp ordering (BTO), optimistic concurrency control (OCC), multiversion concurrency control (MVCC), etc.
Reliability in Distributed Databases
The fourth chapter of the book addresses the sources and types of failures in distributed databases and how to detect and recover from them. Reliability is the ability of a system to function correctly despite failures. Failures are events that cause some components or functions of a system to malfunction or stop working. Failures can be classified into three types: site failures, communication failures, and media failures. Site failures are failures that affect an entire site or node in a distributed system. Communication failures are failures that affect the network links or messages between sites. Media failures are failures that affect the storage devices or media where data are stored.
In a distributed database, reliability is more difficult to achieve than in a centralized database because failures may occur at any site or link and affect multiple transactions and data items. The chapter covers the following topics:
How are failures detected and recovered in distributed databases? - The chapter introduces the concepts of failure detection and recovery. Failure detection is the process of identifying and reporting failures in a distributed system. Failure recovery is the process of restoring the system to a consistent state after a failure occurs. The chapter discusses different methods for failure detection and recovery in distributed databases, such as heartbeat messages, timeout mechanisms, acknowledgement messages, log files, checkpoints, etc. - How are data consistency and availability ensured in distributed databases? - The chapter introduces the concepts of data consistency and availability. Data consistency is the property that data are correct and coherent across all sites. Data availability is the property that data are accessible and usable by users and applications. The chapter discusses different techniques for ensuring data consistency and availability in distributed databases, such as replication, quorum protocols, voting protocols, etc.
Other Topics in Distributed Databases
The fifth chapter of the book explores some advanced topics and applications of distributed databases. The chapter covers the following topics:
How are distributed databases integrated with other systems and technologies? - The chapter introduces the concepts of distributed database integration and interoperability. Distributed database integration is the process of combining data from different sources into a unified view or schema. Distributed database interoperability is the ability of different distributed database systems to communicate and cooperate with each other. The chapter discusses different methods and standards for distributed database integration and interoperability, such as data warehousing, data federation, data virtualization, SQL/PSM, ODBC, JDBC, etc. - What are some open issues and future directions of distributed database research? - The chapter identifies some open issues and future directions of distributed database research. Some of these issues are: security and privacy, heterogeneity and diversity, scalability and elasticity, mobility and ubiquity, cloud computing and big data, etc.
The book Distributed Databases: Principles and Systems by Stefano Ceri and Giuseppe Pelagatti is a classic and comprehensive book on distributed databases. The book provides a solid foundation and a broad overview of the principles and techniques of distributed database systems. The book covers both theoretical foundations and practical applications of distributed databases. The book is well-written, well-organized, well-illustrated, and well-referenced. The book is suitable for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, researchers, and practitioners who want to learn about the state-of-the-art of distributed database systems.
The book also has some limitations and drawbacks. The book was published in 1984, so it does not reflect the latest developments and trends in distributed database research and practice. The book focuses mainly on relational databases, so it does not cover other types of databases, such as object-oriented databases, XML databases, NoSQL databases, etc. The book also does not provide enough examples, exercises, or case studies to illustrate the concepts and techniques discussed in the book.
The book can be compared with other books on distributed databases, such as Principles of Distributed Database Systems by M. Tamer Özsu and Patrick Valduriez (2011), Distributed Database Systems by Chhanda Ray (2009), Distributed Database Management Systems: A Practical Approach by Saeed K. Rahimi and Frank S. Haug (2010), etc. These books are more recent, more comprehensive, more updated, more diverse, and more interactive than the book by Ceri and Pelagatti. However, these books also have their own strengths and weaknesses, so readers may choose the book that best suits their needs and preferences.
Where can I find a free PDF version of the book?
A free PDF version of the book can be found at https://archive.org/details/distributeddatab00ceri. However, readers are advised to respect the intellectual property rights of the authors and publishers.
What are some prerequisites for reading the book?
The book assumes some basic knowledge of database systems and computer networks. Readers who are not familiar with these topics may refer to some introductory books or courses on these topics before reading the book.
How can I cite the book in my academic work?
A possible citation format for the book is:
Ceri S., Pelagatti G. (1984) Distributed Databases: Principles and Systems. McGraw-Hill.
Readers may also use other citation formats or styles according to their requirements or preferences.